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3 edition of Mechanisms of resistance to insects in sorghum and their usefulness in crop improvement found in the catalog.

Mechanisms of resistance to insects in sorghum and their usefulness in crop improvement

H. C. Sharma

Mechanisms of resistance to insects in sorghum and their usefulness in crop improvement

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Published by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics in Patancheru .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Includes bibliographical references (p. 47-51).

StatementH.C. Sharma and K.F. Nwanze.
SeriesInformation bulletin -- no. 45
ContributionsNwanze, Kanayo F., International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics.
The Physical Object
Pagination51 p. :
Number of Pages51
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL23198972M
LC Control Number2009341837

(). Impacts of genetic improvement in sorghum. (). Inheritance of A1 and A2 cytoplasmic genetic male sterility in sorghum. (). Mechanisms of Resistance to Insects in Sorghum and Their Usefulness ().   The study, authored by a trio of independent researchers, documents resistance in a major crop pest called corn earworm, and adds to warnings that the popular GMO insect-resistant technology known as Bt, after the soil-dwelling bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, has lost its is noteworthy as the first long-term, in-field assessment of transgenic Bt corn’s effectiveness against one .


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Mechanisms of resistance to insects in sorghum and their usefulness in crop improvement by H. C. Sharma Download PDF EPUB FB2

A large proportion of the world sorghum germplasm collection has been evaluated for resistance to insect pests, and a number of resistant lines have been identified ().Much progress has also been made in understanding the genetics and mechanisms of resistance to important pests of sorghum, that is, shoot fly, spotted stemborer, sorghum midge, and head bug, Calocoris angustatus (Lethiery).Author: P.G.

Padmaja. To identify sorghum genotypes with diverse mechanisms of resistance to sorghum midge, we studied oviposition, larval survival, and midge damage in 27 sorghum midge-resistant genotypes, and a.

Plant resistance to insects is a natural phenomenon based on plant self-defense mechanisms. It results from insect-plant co-evolution and is crucial for their co-existence.

During plant domestication, some important features of plant resistance may be inadvertantly removed by the breeders, increasing their. Mechanisms of resistance to insects and their usefulness in 81 sorghum improvement H C Sharma, K F Nwanze, and V Subramanian Inheritance of resistance to insect pests in sorghum Faujdar Singh Part 4 Breeding methodologies Breeding sorghums for insect resistance Belum V S Reddy, H F W Rattunde, and J W Stenhouse Biotechnology and sorghum.

Insecticides for Field Crops, including current alfalfa pest management information from UNL Extension.(The guide is excerpted from Nebraska Extension's Guide for Weed, Disease and Insect Management in Nebraska.); Insect Almanac, a website of the UNL Department of Entomology.; CropWatch News and the CropWatch News Archive: Use search to find articles on identifying and.

Goals / Objectives Identify sources of resistance to insects/aflatoxin in corn/sorghum and transfer resistance to acceptable plant types. Develop germplasm with antibiosis/nonpreference resistance to insects. Determine genetics of resistance in different corn lines using conventional/molecular techniques.

Knowledge of the mechanisms of resistance, factors contributing to host plant resistance to insects, and the inheritance pattern is useful in deciding suitable selection criteria for each of the pests and the breeding methods to be employed for the genetic improvement for insect resistance.

Indian landraces have high degree of resistance to Author: P.G. Padmaja, C. Aruna. Insect pests are responsible for substantial crop losses worldwide through direct damage and transmission of plant diseases, and novel approaches that complement or replace broad-spectrum chemical insecticides will facilitate the sustainable intensification of food production in the coming decades.

Multiple strategies for improved crop resistance to insect pests, especially strategies relating Cited by:   Sharma HC, Nwanze KF () Mechanisms of resistance to insects and their usefulness in sorghum improvement, Information bulletin no. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru Google ScholarCited by: 2.

Prospects for using transgenic resistance to insects in crop improvement 78 • development of resistance in insect populations may limit Mechanisms of resistance to insects in sorghum and their usefulness in crop improvement book usefulness of transgenics.

Therefore, efficient deployment and management of transgenic plants in an effective manner will be an important prerequisite for sustainable use of biotechnology for crop. Sorghum is not therefore an insect pest free crop (Tillman, ). Crop losses caused by insects are worldwide a matter of concern; more than insect and mite species are globally known as.

resistance to shoot fly, stem borer, midge, and head bugs have been developed at ICRISAT (Table 3). Much of this material has been shared with public institutions and private seed industry over the past decade for use in sorghum improvement, and for developing high-yielding hybrids with resistance to insects.

To develop insect. Sorghum production is affected by a wide array of biotic constraints, of which sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata is the most important pest, which severely damages the sorghum crop during the seedling stage. Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, A.

soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we Cited by: 8. 5 - Major Insect Pests of Grain Sorghum in Arkansas and Their Management Paul McLeod and Jeremy Greene Grain sorghum production in Arkansas has been erratic until recent years both in yield per acre and in number of acres planted.

The low level of profitability has often caused the crop to be viewed as a “last resort” planting. Progress 06/11/03 to 02/29/08 Outputs Progress Report Objectives (from AD) Identify new sources of genetic resistance to insect pests (Russian wheat aphid, greenbug, and bird cherry-oat aphid) in wheat, barley, sorghum, and related species; determine the genetic diversity and genetic control of resistance to insect pests in wheat, barley, and sorghum; develop improved wheat, barley, and.

Insect pests are responsible for substantial crop losses worldwide through direct damage and transmission of plant diseases, and novel approaches that complement or replace broad-spectrum chemical insecticides will facilitate the sustainable intensification of food production in the coming decades.

Multiple strategies for improved crop resistance to insect pests, especially strategies relating. In this case study, sorghum resistance to sorghum midge plays a fundamental role in the IPM strategy.

Resistance is not intended to always provide the sole means of control but is used as a direct control tactic that, in combination with others, provides desired protection of the crop from the insect pest.

Insects have evolved three major mechanisms to overcome toxicants; 1) biochemical resistance; 2) physiological resistance; and 3) behavioral resistance.

Biochemical resistance: In this form of resistance, an insecticide is detoxified by one or more enzymes before it can reach its site of action. Resistance can be classified as to intensities: immunity; high, moderate and low resistance; or types of resistance: vertical or horizontal resistance.

The mechanisms of resistance include: non-preference, antibiosis and tolerance. Examples of the effects of both non-preference and antibiosis resistance on insect numbers are by: Crop improvement programs emphasize the breeding of crop varieties with multiple resistance to pests, and resistant varieties developed in recent years represent some of the greatest achievements of modern agriculture.

This book presents a broad overview of host plant resistance to insect pests. Morphological Mechanisms of Crop Resistance to Insects. By Dan Stein. Statement "Organic farmers tend to pick plants that are insect resistant and so higher in natural pesticides. Most celery has about nine hundred parts per billion of two natural carcinogens.

But one variety might have two thousand parts per billion, another two hundred parts. Painter classified mechanisms of resistance into 3 main categories Antixenosis (Non preference) Antixenosis is mechanism employed by the plant to deter or reduce colonization by insects.

Plants that exhibit antixenotic resistance should have a reduced initial number of. Host Plant Resistance to Insects Laboratory Soybean Quality Improvement Laboratory The long-term goal of research conducted in the Small Grains Insect Resistance Laboratory is to identify, characterize and utilize genetic mechanisms that confer durable insect resistance to crop plants.

Insect Resistance in Crops: A Case Study of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and its Transfer to Developing Countries. ISAAA Briefs No. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY. Cover Picture: Left: The diamondback moth prefers wildtype broccoli; Right: Bt-transformed broccoli is resistant to diamondback moth.

Courtesy: T.D. Metz and E.D. Earle (Cornell File Size: KB. Mannechoti, P. () Studies of resistance of 92 sorghum and 38 maize cultivars to four species of stored product insects.

MSc thesis, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Mbata, G. () The use of resistant crop varieties in Cited by: 6.

Covers terminology and categories of resistance, and presents techniques for studying plant resistance. Also gives consideration to potentially resistant material.

Examines the molecular biology and genetics of insect resistance in crop plants, and insect genes capable of Cited by: Insects develop this type of resistance by expressing multiple resistance mechanisms. This can happen if one insecticide is used until insects display a resistance and then another is used and the insect population becomes resistant to that one, and so on.

Localized populations of Colorado potato beetle are notorious for multiple resistance to. A number of sorghum hybrids have now been identified which express variable, but quite significant, levels of resistance to sugarcane aphids (SCA).

Below is a list of those which are potentially suitable for planting in Kansas, based on having early to med-early maturity. The sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Homoptera: Aphididae) was first discovered on sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], in the United States in Florida as early (Wilbrink ), and later confirmed by Denmark (), although it also has a history of infesting sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum (L.), in Florida (MeadDenmark ) and Louisiana (Hall Cited by: Pros and cons of GM crops as a source of resistance to insect pests.

Summary Current experience of the pros and cons of using GM crops for resistance to insect pests is largely limited to one source of transgene, the proteins expressing the toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Mechanisms of resistance to insects in sorghum and their usefulness in crop improvement. Information Bulletin No.

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India 56 pp. Sharma S, Thakur DR. Crop Resistance to Insects Lab is established to lea rn how insect-resistant crops respond to abiotic and biotic stresses.

We are located at Phytotron, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. We are interested in plant-insect interaction, plant resistance to insects, and plant defense mechanism.

Insects resistance crops 1. Insect Resistance Crops How we can make, some types, ecological factors andd different opinions By: Francisco Muñoz Maestre Introduction Plants have their own insect resistance mechanism, but sometimes isn’t enough to can defend against insects.

In was the first Insects Resistant crop (I.R.C.), a. Start studying Chapter 14 Plant Breeding (Breeding for Resistance to Diseases and Insect Pests). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

insects controlled by resistance in sorghum (greenbug, Schizaphis graminum [Rondani)) and alfalfa (pea aphid, Acyrthosipho/l. pisllm [Harris)) are vectors of plant viruses, but the resistance was developed to control the direct damage caused by the insects.

The effect of resistance on transmission of maize dwarf. the crop. Crop resistance to insect pests – • Provide a refuge for avirulent insects.

Using refuges to delay virulence evolution Deploying refuges: • Plant in separate, adjacent blocks. • Mix with resistant plants so susceptible plants are Size: KB. Insects are getting faster at developing resistance to GM crops Study finds a surge of insects fighting back against insecticidal crops, but says adding non-GM plants can delay the evolution of.

Techniques for Evaluating Insect Resistance in Crop Plants - CRC Press Book This comprehensive book is the first illustrated volume to provide detailed discussions of all plant genera regarding techniques developed to evaluate plant resistance to insects.

Crop resistance to insects is seen as an environmentally friendly and sustaina-ble solution to insect pests that could reduce the inputs of chemical insecticides. Recent evidence suggests that grow-ers are increasingly interested in incorporating crop resis-tance into their integrated pest management strategies (Smith and Quisenberry ).

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) is a warm-season (C 4 photosynthetic pathway), short-day annual grass. It grows best under relatively high temperatures and under sunny conditions. Sorghum as a crop originated as far back as 3, years ago. The selection. Discusses how to identify and develop plant materials with resistance to insect pests.

Covers terminology and categories of resistance, and presents techniques for studying plant resistance. Also gives consideration to potentially resistant material.

Examines the molecular biology and genetics of insect resistance in crop plants, and insect genes capable of overcoming resistance to form insect.Plants and herbivores have co-evolved in their natural habitats for about million years, but since the domestication of crops, plant resistance against insects has taken a different turn.

With the onset of monoculture-driven modern agriculture, selective pressure on insects to overcome resistances has dramatically by: understanding the genetics and mechanisms of resistance to important pests in the major vegetable crops. Excellent recent reviews summarize this work in. tomato (Farrar and Kennedy ), potato (Flanders et al.Tingey and Yencho in press), cucurbits (Robinson ), and common beans (Kornegay and Cardona ).